Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT3G23130.1
Common NameFLO10, FON1, K14B15.1, SUP
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family C2H2
Protein Properties Length: 204aa    MW: 23083.8 Da    PI: 8.9333
Description C2H2 family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT3G23130.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
      zf-C2H2  1 ykCpdCgksFsrksnLkrHirtH 23
                 y+C+ C++ F++   L  H+++H
                 9********************99 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
SuperFamilySSF576671.25E-64473No hitNo description
PfamPF139121.3E-64770IPR007087Zinc finger, C2H2
PROSITE profilePS5015711.244774IPR007087Zinc finger, C2H2
SMARTSM003550.00384769IPR015880Zinc finger, C2H2-like
PROSITE patternPS0002804969IPR007087Zinc finger, C2H2
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0008361Biological Processregulation of cell size
GO:0009755Biological Processhormone-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0010093Biological Processspecification of floral organ identity
GO:0010160Biological Processformation of organ boundary
GO:0030154Biological Processcell differentiation
GO:0042127Biological Processregulation of cell proliferation
GO:0045892Biological Processnegative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0008270Molecular Functionzinc ion binding
GO:0043565Molecular Functionsequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0044212Molecular Functiontranscription regulatory region DNA binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000115anatomysocket cell
PO:0000146anatomyabscission zone
PO:0003011anatomyroot vascular system
PO:0006502anatomyfloral organ abscission zone
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 204 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
1njq_A2e-144269229superman protein
2l1o_A2e-144269229Transcriptional regulator SUPERMAN
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT3G23130-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed early in the third whorl, and later becomes localized at the boundary between the stamen and carpel whorls. Also detected in developing ovule primordia.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIRFlower-specific gene controlling the boundary of the stamen and carpel whorls. Similar to zinc finger transcription factors.
UniProtProbable transcriptional regulator considered as cadastral protein that acts indirectly to prevent the B class homeotic proteins APETALA3 and perhaps PISTILLATA from acting in the gynoecial whorl. Principal function is to balance cell proliferation in the third and fourth whorls of developing flowers thereby maintaining the boundary between stamens and carpels. May fulfill this role by repressing genes implicated in cell division. Plays equally a role in the determinacy of the floral meristem. Is also required for normal ovule development. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11006335, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11943180, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12324589, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1352237, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7477325}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. Arabidopsis superman regulate hormone signalling and mediate cell proliferation and differentiation.
    [PMID: 20980362]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: Repressed by KRYPTONITE/SUVH4, member of the histone H3-K9 methyltransferase family that contributes with other factors to the CpNpG methylation of the SUP gene resulting in its silencing. The alternative epigenetic states of the SUPERMAN locus have been called Clark Kent alleles. Positively regulated at an early stage of development by LEAFY and by B class homeotic proteins APETALA3 and PISTILLATA. Later expression is maintained by both the B class homeotic proteins and the C class homeotic protein AGAMOUS. These two steps of regulation require the intervention of additional factors. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11898023}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT3G54340 (A), AT4G18960 (A), AT5G20240 (A), AT5G61850 (A)
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G23420(R), AT2G17950(R), AT3G54340(R), AT5G20240(R)
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT3G23130
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAB0256080.0AB025608.1 Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, chromosome 3, TAC clone:K14B15.
GenBankATU389460.0U38946.1 Arabidopsis thaliana SUPERMAN (sup) gene, complete cds.
GenBankCP0026860.0CP002686.1 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 3, complete sequence.
GenBankDQ0566050.0DQ056605.1 Arabidopsis thaliana superman protein (At3g23130) mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_188954.11e-150transcriptional regulator protein SUPERMAN
SwissprotQ388951e-152SUP_ARATH; Transcriptional regulator SUPERMAN
TrEMBLC0SVC61e-150C0SVC6_ARATH; Putative uncharacterized protein At3g23130 (Fragment)
STRINGAT3G23130.11e-149(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP5761581
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Chen Q, et al.
    The Arabidopsis FILAMENTOUS FLOWER gene is required for flower formation.
    Development, 1999. 126(12): p. 2715-26
  2. Takatsuji H
    Zinc-finger proteins: the classical zinc finger emerges in contemporary plant science.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 1999. 39(6): p. 1073-8
  3. Jacobsen SE,Running MP,Meyerowitz EM
    Disruption of an RNA helicase/RNAse III gene in Arabidopsis causes unregulated cell division in floral meristems.
    Development, 1999. 126(23): p. 5231-43
  4. Rohde A, et al.
    Carpel, a new Arabidopsis epi-mutant of the SUPERMAN gene: phenotypic analysis and DNA methylation status.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 1999. 40(9): p. 961-72
  5. Villanueva JM, et al.
    INNER NO OUTER regulates abaxial- adaxial patterning in Arabidopsis ovules.
    Genes Dev., 1999. 13(23): p. 3160-9
  6. Meyerowitz EM,Running MP,Sakai H,Williams RW
    Multiple modes of cell division control in Arabidopsis flower development.
    Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol., 1998. 51: p. 19-26
  7. Jacobsen SE,Sakai H,Finnegan EJ,Cao X,Meyerowitz EM
    Ectopic hypermethylation of flower-specific genes in Arabidopsis.
    Curr. Biol., 2000. 10(4): p. 179-86
  8. Nandi AK,Kushalappa K,Prasad K,Vijayraghavan U
    A conserved function for Arabidopsis SUPERMAN in regulating floral-whorl cell proliferation in rice, a monocotyledonous plant.
    Curr. Biol., 2000. 10(4): p. 215-8
  9. Kater MM,Franken J,van Aelst A,Angenent GC
    Suppression of cell expansion by ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis SUPERMAN gene in transgenic petunia and tobacco.
    Plant J., 2000. 23(3): p. 407-13
  10. Sakai H,Krizek BA,Jacobsen SE,Meyerowitz EM
    Regulation of SUP expression identifies multiple regulators involved in arabidopsis floral meristem development.
    Plant Cell, 2000. 12(9): p. 1607-18
  11. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  12. Tian L,Chen ZJ
    Blocking histone deacetylation in Arabidopsis induces pleiotropic effects on plant gene regulation and development.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2001. 98(1): p. 200-5
  13. Lindroth AM, et al.
    Requirement of CHROMOMETHYLASE3 for maintenance of CpXpG methylation.
    Science, 2001. 292(5524): p. 2077-80
  14. Kishimoto N, et al.
    Site specificity of the Arabidopsis METI DNA methyltransferase demonstrated through hypermethylation of the superman locus.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2001. 46(2): p. 171-83
  15. Bereterbide A,Hernould M,Castera S,Mouras A
    Inhibition of cell proliferation, cell expansion and differentiation by the Arabidopsis SUPERMAN gene in transgenic tobacco plants.
    Planta, 2001. 214(1): p. 22-9
  16. Yun JY,Weigel D,Lee I
    Ectopic expression of SUPERMAN suppresses development of petals and stamens.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2002. 43(1): p. 52-7
  17. Bereterbide A,Hernould M,Farbos I,Glimelius K,Mouras A
    Restoration of stamen development and production of functional pollen in an alloplasmic CMS tobacco line by ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana SUPERMAN gene.
    Plant J., 2002. 29(5): p. 607-15
  18. Jackson JP,Lindroth AM,Cao X,Jacobsen SE
    Control of CpNpG DNA methylation by the KRYPTONITE histone H3 methyltransferase.
    Nature, 2002. 416(6880): p. 556-60
  19. Goff SA, et al.
    A draft sequence of the rice genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica).
    Science, 2002. 296(5565): p. 92-100
  20. Hiratsu K,Ohta M,Matsui K,Ohme-Takagi M
    The SUPERMAN protein is an active repressor whose carboxy-terminal repression domain is required for the development of normal flowers.
    FEBS Lett., 2002. 514(2-3): p. 351-4
  21. Cao X,Jacobsen SE
    Role of the arabidopsis DRM methyltransferases in de novo DNA methylation and gene silencing.
    Curr. Biol., 2002. 12(13): p. 1138-44
  22. Meister RJ,Kotow LM,Gasser CS
    SUPERMAN attenuates positive INNER NO OUTER autoregulation to maintain polar development of Arabidopsis ovule outer integuments.
    Development, 2002. 129(18): p. 4281-9
  23. Gaiser JC,Robinson-Beers K,Gasser CS
    The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN Gene Mediates Asymmetric Growth of the Outer Integument of Ovules.
    Plant Cell, 1995. 7(3): p. 333-345
  24. Wilkinson MD,Haughn GW
    UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS Controls Meristem Identity and Organ Primordia Fate in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 1995. 7(9): p. 1485-1499
  25. Schultz EA,Pickett FB,Haughn GW
    The FLO10 Gene Product Regulates the Expression Domain of Homeotic Genes AP3 and PI in Arabidopsis Flowers.
    Plant Cell, 1991. 3(11): p. 1221-1237
  26. Dathan N, et al.
    The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN protein is able to specifically bind DNA through its single Cys2-His2 zinc finger motif.
    Nucleic Acids Res., 2002. 30(22): p. 4945-51
  27. Zilberman D,Cao X,Jacobsen SE
    ARGONAUTE4 control of locus-specific siRNA accumulation and DNA and histone methylation.
    Science, 2003. 299(5607): p. 716-9
  28. Isernia C, et al.
    NMR structure of the single QALGGH zinc finger domain from the Arabidopsis thaliana SUPERMAN protein.
    Chembiochem, 2003. 4(2-3): p. 171-80
  29. Bowman JL, et al.
    SUPERMAN, a regulator of floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis.
    Development, 1992. 114(3): p. 599-615
  30. Meister RJ, et al.
    Definition and interactions of a positive regulatory element of the Arabidopsis INNER NO OUTER promoter.
    Plant J., 2004. 37(3): p. 426-38
  31. Skinner DJ,Hill TA,Gasser CS
    Regulation of ovule development.
    Plant Cell, 2004. 16 Suppl: p. S32-45
  32. Sieber P,Petrascheck M,Barberis A,Schneitz K
    Organ polarity in Arabidopsis. NOZZLE physically interacts with members of the YABBY family.
    Plant Physiol., 2004. 135(4): p. 2172-85
  33. Suzaki T, et al.
    The gene FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER1 regulates floral meristem size in rice and encodes a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase orthologous to Arabidopsis CLAVATA1.
    Development, 2004. 131(22): p. 5649-57
  34. Meister RJ,Oldenhof H,Bowman JL,Gasser CS
    Multiple protein regions contribute to differential activities of YABBY proteins in reproductive development.
    Plant Physiol., 2005. 137(2): p. 651-62
  35. Alvarez-Venegas R,Avramova Z
    Methylation patterns of histone H3 Lys 4, Lys 9 and Lys 27 in transcriptionally active and inactive Arabidopsis genes and in atx1 mutants.
    Nucleic Acids Res., 2005. 33(16): p. 5199-207
  36. Krizek BA,Lewis MW,Fletcher JC
    RABBIT EARS is a second-whorl repressor of AGAMOUS that maintains spatial boundaries in Arabidopsis flowers.
    Plant J., 2006. 45(3): p. 369-83
  37. Jiang CJ, et al.
    SAZ, a new SUPERMAN-like protein, negatively regulates a subset of ABA-responsive genes in Arabidopsis.
    Mol. Genet. Genomics, 2008. 279(2): p. 183-92
  38. Gallagher TL,Gasser CS
    Independence and interaction of regions of the INNER NO OUTER protein in growth control during ovule development.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 147(1): p. 306-15
  39. Peiffer JA, et al.
    A spatial dissection of the Arabidopsis floral transcriptome by MPSS.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2008. 8: p. 43
  40. Prunet N, et al.
    REBELOTE, SQUINT, and ULTRAPETALA1 function redundantly in the temporal regulation of floral meristem termination in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell, 2008. 20(4): p. 901-19
  41. Suzaki T,Yoshida A,Hirano HY
    Functional diversification of CLAVATA3-related CLE proteins in meristem maintenance in rice.
    Plant Cell, 2008. 20(8): p. 2049-58
  42. Kazama Y, et al.
    A SUPERMAN-like gene is exclusively expressed in female flowers of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2009. 50(6): p. 1127-41
  43. Devaiah BN,Madhuvanthi R,Karthikeyan AS,Raghothama KG
    Phosphate starvation responses and gibberellic acid biosynthesis are regulated by the MYB62 transcription factor in Arabidopsis.
    Mol Plant, 2009. 2(1): p. 43-58
  44. Kagale S,Links MG,Rozwadowski K
    Genome-wide analysis of ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression motif-containing transcriptional regulators in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2010. 152(3): p. 1109-34
  45. Irish VF
    The flowering of Arabidopsis flower development.
    Plant J., 2010. 61(6): p. 1014-28
  46. Nibau C,Di Stilio VS,Wu HM,Cheung AY
    Arabidopsis and Tobacco superman regulate hormone signalling and mediate cell proliferation and differentiation.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2011. 62(3): p. 949-61
  47. Ronse De Craene L,Tr
    Carpeloidy in flower evolution and diversification: a comparative study in Carica papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Ann. Bot., 2011. 107(9): p. 1453-63
  48. Malgieri G, et al.
    Zinc to cadmium replacement in the A. thaliana SUPERMAN Cys₂ His₂ zinc finger induces structural rearrangements of typical DNA base determinant positions.
    Biopolymers, 2011. 95(11): p. 801-10
  49. Yumul RE, et al.
    POWERDRESS and diversified expression of the MIR172 gene family bolster the floral stem cell network.
    PLoS Genet., 2013. 9(1): p. e1003218
  50. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  51. Sakai H,Medrano LJ,Meyerowitz EM
    Role of SUPERMAN in maintaining Arabidopsis floral whorl boundaries.
    Nature, 1995. 378(6553): p. 199-203
  52. Jack T,Fox GL,Meyerowitz EM
    Arabidopsis homeotic gene APETALA3 ectopic expression: transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation determine floral organ identity.
    Cell, 1994. 76(4): p. 703-16
  53. Goto K,Meyerowitz EM
    Function and regulation of the Arabidopsis floral homeotic gene PISTILLATA.
    Genes Dev., 1994. 8(13): p. 1548-60
  54. Laux T,Mayer KF,Berger J,Jürgens G
    The WUSCHEL gene is required for shoot and floral meristem integrity in Arabidopsis.
    Development, 1996. 122(1): p. 87-96
  55. Huang H,Ma H
    FON1, an Arabidopsis gene that terminates floral meristem activity and controls flower organ number.
    Plant Cell, 1997. 9(2): p. 115-34
  56. Jack T,Sieburth L,Meyerowitz E
    Targeted misexpression of AGAMOUS in whorl 2 of Arabidopsis flowers.
    Plant J., 1997. 11(4): p. 825-39
  57. Jacobsen SE,Meyerowitz EM
    Hypermethylated SUPERMAN epigenetic alleles in arabidopsis.
    Science, 1997. 277(5329): p. 1100-3
  58. Huang H,Ma H
    The nature of the Arabidopsis fon1 mutations.
    Plant Cell, 1998. 10(1): p. 3-4